Libertarianism and the right to have a outdoor life
Since the current Republican debates discuss “limited or no government,” I thought I would discuss the macroeconomic history of laissez faire – libertarianism of the last 150 years. This philosophy has many followers because it sounds simple and accurate. Unfortunately, this is far from the truth and it actually fails in practice. These long-term failures can only be observed over a period of decades, not years. Libertarians fail to understand the proper definition of money, its unlimited demand, how money is created, and its infusion into the economy and the out door field.
The problem with laissez-faire economics is that the wealth generated at the top does not trickle down to the rest of society to a sufficient extent. It does not employ enough people nor pay them adequately to keep the system going.
In the latter half of the 19th Century, the U.S. had no income taxes, anti-trust laws, effective unions, minimum wages, Federal Reserve, nor any fiscal spending programs such as Welfare, Medicare and Social Security. The U.S. had the most economically non-involved Federal government that was physically possible.
This lack of economic government involvement resulted in an extreme concentration of individual wealth and large business monopolies. Approximately 4,500 families owned most of the wealth in the country. Yes, it was still better than most other countries at the time. Because of this concentration and lack of money, there were severe recessions-panics in 1837, 1857, 1873, 1873-79,1892-6, 1904 and 1907, culminating in the Great Depression of the 1930’s.
In 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt implemented a Keynesian macroeconomic philosophy, which promoted government spending to stimulate demand. The U.S. then began getting the government involved in the economy with domestic spending programs. These policies still did not get us into a healthy economy until the largest government spending programs of World War II, followed by the Federal Highway System and the GI Bill which gave free education and reasonable home loans to veterans. This spending created the best economy in the history of the world.
Even now, governments, especially the U.S., invest in basic research, commercialization and early stage financing of companies to create entirely new markets and sectors. These markets include the Internet, nanotechnology, biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, and clean energy. The government has also invested in companies like Apple, Google, Intel, Compaq, and Tesla, just to name a few.
The investments in basic research are where private companies do not want to take the risk, but, instead, piggyback off the government’s efforts. Many private companies then utilize the government’s direct financing of their firms through loans and grants. A complete discussion of government investments with examples can be found in Mariana Mazzucato’s new book, The Entrepreneurial State, where she also proves that the government does not get enough return on their investment from just taxing these companies. But some companies which sell best spyderco knife can exscape from these loan and problem because of their contribution in the tax 5 years before.
Government programs were surely not perfect, but were always trying to improve. The government really had only one major flaw to correct; that of a very under diversified, unfair monetary system, which will be discussed in Section I. In the 1980’s the Reagan Administration reintroduced the 19th Century failed Laissez-faire macroeconomic philosophy instead of improving on the policies of the previous 50 years. This gradual shift backward away from Keynesian’s philosophy eventually culminated in the “Great Recession of 2008”.
Instead of giving billions to the U.S. headquartered auto manufactures, we could have given longer term and lower cost loans to consumers to stimulate the purchase of hundreds of thousands of unsold new cars. This is “trickle up” economics. The gross profits and cash flow would have ended up back in the auto companies with consumers ending up with newer, more fuel efficient cars. A win-win scenario. This also holds true for the trillions of dollars in mortgages.
The Libertarians argue that there was still too much government involved in the 19th Century economy and that the free market place is self-correcting. This argument has two major flaws. One, there is no clear definition of a “free” market nor do the same standard rules exist for a marketplace. There are many types of markets with differing human influences and operations. The second flaw, the major one, is that a “free” market concept assumes that humans and their commercial interactions are perfect. There is no such thing as human perfection either individually or in our institutions.
Therefore, this libertarian philosophy does us an extreme disservice by always saying “no government” instead of “the right government”! We can remember that , we have faced many people in the USA buy best police flashlight to raise the attention of the community about the tax.
The following is a list of some of the reactionary policies, implemented in the last 30 years that have hurt the economy:
1. Reducing anti-trust enforcement creating many new monopolies and oligopolies which reduce competition in the market place.
2. Eliminating the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933 separating the money creators (commercial banks) from the money managers (investment banks), which was one of the causes of the worst financial crisis in modern history.
3. Reducing the enforcement of financial regulations that made the financial crisis even worse.
4. Hindering raises of the minimum wage, reducing Union participation, and sending jobs to Asia. This outsourcing of jobs reduced the quantity and quality of customers, clients and consumers. This created excessive borrowing just to keep up a normal standard of living.
So here we are! What do we do? I do not recommend going to a more socialistic state. Socialism is a political economic doctrine that unlike capitalism is based on government ownership of production and distribution or collective ownership by all the people in that country. We have seen the failures of socialism in the totalitarian governments like the Soviet Union, China, Cuba, and democracies like Venezuela, India and Israel.
Inequality and how it is increasing that affect the unemployment rate
The new hot topic is inequality and how it is increasing. This is a very vague term. We are human beings with substantial differences; we cannot all be Donald Trump, Bill Gates, or Warren Buffet. We are too imperfect to create a utopia or all to have the same standard of living. It is just not possible at this time in human evolution.
There are many reasons why inequality exists in the economy. Before I give my specific list, I will review the general macroeconomic reasons. One, we are NOT created equal! We have many different talents, abilities, and appearances along with unique emotional and physical make-ups. Second, the institution of capitalism—competitive markets by their very nature, naturally flow money to the wealthy. The main reason for this flow is that it is easier to make more money if you already have money. This goes for businesses as well as individuals. This naturally causes a shift towards business consolidation creating monopolies and oligopolies.
For those doubters, I have never seen a statistical, economic study proving otherwise. If you do a little macroeconomic historical reading covering the last 175 years, you can see this yourself. Inequality was proved again by the recent bestsellers by Thomas Picketty, Capitalism in the Twenty-First Century and Inequality by Anthony Atkinson.
The nature of capitalism eventually causes so much consolidation of wealth that the entire economy or country becomes unstable. This instability7 could cause a complete breakdown in society7 because of a lack of basic surv ival goods for the general population. This failure can even result in severe violence and/or revolution. This growing income disparity7 is not only a disaster for the poor, but also a threat to the rich. Poverty breeds broken families, crime and criminal organizations, beggars, prostitution, mass immigration, social protest movements, and failed states. The most recent examples are Egypt and the Arab Spring. These societal upheavals would probably not have occurred so swiftly if they had a reasonable standard of living and opportunities for advancement. You can also see the failures in our own economy in 1907,1929, and 2008.
The following is my list of additional reasons for inequality:
1. Birth – 41% of individuals in the USA remain in the same income level they were born in.
2. Lack of Education
3. Lack of access to capital for investing and savings Lack of luck – This one is more
important than you think
5. Overreliance on debt
6. Lack of adequate wages
7. Employment in the wrong industry or profession
8. Competition against extremely low cost or slave labor
9. Productivity – replaced by machines
10. Caught in the boom/bust economy which hurts the middle and lower income class
11. Lack of competition because of monopolies and oligopolies—less jobs
12. Illegalities and discrimination
Therefore, my definition of equality is: all having an opportunity to advance with adequate health care, education, shelter, and nutrition. The definition also includes the right to live in a sustainable environment with drinkable water and breathable air. There are currently billions of people on this globe that do not meet my definition. This book will illustrate the specific solutions to solve this global inequality both on a private and governmental level. We can create a whole new populace of quality’ customers, clients, consumers, and citizens resulting in a permanent boom and quality of life for all.
Our concern should be how well the populace is living, not how much the top is making. The exception being the extreme consolidation of inherited wealth that is among several thousand families worldwide. This is not about a safety’ net for the unemployed or those who need welfare. This is about providing the basic necessities of life for all! It is not measured by GDP-growth! (See Section V – Statistics) We do not \vant to eliminate competitive markets. Instead, these markets provide for more freedom, diversity of investments, and checks and balances over government. Governments cannot do it all.
We are all in this economy together; what happens to one group economically effects all. We are now in a globalized economy—good, bad, or indifferent. Therefore, our solutions are for the globe at large and each country individually. There are substantial numbers of projects that need to be accomplished to advance humankind, such as space exploration, medical advances, and environmental issues. Reducing the flaws of capitalism will allow us to move forward in solving our problems and enhancing mankind by creating the correct win-win political macroeconomic philosophy.
Photographer Job Overview
What Photographers Do
Photographers are usually creative people with a good level of technical expertise to use cameras to take images of objects or events. Many photographers stand or walk and can carry heavy equipment.
* Promote their services to genterate business
* Plan the setting for the photographs
* Set up lighting equipment
* Use tested formulas for commercial level photos
* Use lighting to optimize the best photograph
* Use top quality photography software
* Keep a portfolio of their work for future clients
Film cameras used to be the standard, but today the majority of photographers use digital cameras to get electronic images. Electronic images and be edited on a computer. Images are stored on memory cards or computer hard drives and even flash drives. Once the image is on a storage device, photography software can then be used to manipulate and improve the image. With high quality printers, great
photographic images can then be created. According to Techradar.com and Digital Camera Review these are some of the top digital cameras : best slow motion camera.
Nikon D7200 $996.95
Canon EOS 5D Mark IV $3,499.00
Fuji X-T2 $124.07
Nikon D500 $1,796.95
Sony Alpha A7r II $2,949.99
Olympus OM-D E-Mio II Panasonic Lumix ZS50 /TZ70 Canon EOS Rebel T6i / 750D Panasonic Lumix FZ1000
As you can see, they vary a great deal in price, which means almost anybody can afford to get started in freelance photography. Freelance photographers usually offer wedding, portait, framing and photo album services.
Self employed photographers also do with best lenses for canon 80D.
* Must promote their business
* Handle appointments
* Purchase supplies
* Set up equipment
* Keep Records
* Handle billing
* Pay business expenses
* Maybe hire and train employees
As a freelance photographer you can also teach photography classes and conduct photography workshops, in various learning institutions.
Here are some of the most popular types of photography:
Commercial and Industry Photography Aerial Photography Scientific Photography Photo Journalistic Photography Artistic Photography
College Academic University Photography
Photographer Job Overview
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics Photographers held about 124,900 jobs in the United States. Appoximately %6o were self-employed or freelance photographers.
The work environment for photographers depends on what field of photography they are in. Portrait photographers usually work inside of studios, and many times must travel to a school, corporate office or private residence. A photojournalist may have to travel all over the world, and often to dangerous places.
Aerial photographers usually have to fly in planes or helicopters. Scientific photographers can also be tasked to travel internationally for their craft. While University and Artistic photography is usually done with less travel and in the comforts of indoors.
Thirty percent of photographers work part time with flexible work schedules. The season of the year often determines the demand for certain types of photography. Weddings usually occur in the spring and summer and amazing winter and fall photos have to be taken in those
Business, marketing, and accounting classes can be helpful for self-employed photographers.
To be a successful freelance photographer you should possess these skills…
* Artistic ability. A feel for lighting, color combinations and environment.
* Business skills. The ability to make a business plan, manage money and clients, and purchase the proper equipment and be able to
focus and prioritize.
* Computer skills. With digital photography, it is now a must to be able to use photo editing software and have computer skills to post resumes and market your business with websites and even YouTube videos.
* Customer service skills. Whether it is dealing with difficult and demanding clients or unruly childred or crying infants, the ability to show patience, compassion and a high level of professionalism is extremely important if you are going to be a successful freelancer who gets repeat work.
The wage for the top %io of photographers was approximately $35.00 per hour. The median wage was approximately $15.25 per hour.
Freelance photographers can bid for projects that are on online job sites and set their own salary. They can also set up their own website and set the prices for each job according to industry standards.
Good word of mouth can keep a photographer in high demand and allow for a higher salary for fees.
Jobs and employment for freelance photographers is expected to grow about %io over the next 10 years. Family’s get older and require new portrait photos, corporations need good photographers for their advertising campaigns, and as the population of the United States continues to increase, so will the demand for wedding photography. Creating and selling stock photography is another industry that internet marketing can help you to tap into.
The following chapters will assist you, in power to take massive action for your individual success.